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[<][<=][=>]Pandoc User's Guide

    Using pandoc
    Specifying formats
    Character encoding
    Creating a PDF
    Reading from the Web
    General options
    Reader options
    General writer options
    Options affecting specific writers
    Citation rendering
    Math rendering in HTML
    Options for wrapper scripts
    Metadata variables
    Language variables
    Variables for HTML slides
    Variables for Beamer slides
    Variables for LaTeX
        Front matter
        BibLaTeX Bibliographies
    Variables for ConTeXt
    Variables for wkhtmltopdf
    Variables for man pages
    Variables for ms
    Structural variables
    Using variables in templates
            Extension: smart
    Headings and sections
            Extension: auto_identifiers
            Extension: ascii_identifiers
            Extension: gfm_auto_identifiers
    Math Input
    Raw HTML/TeX
            Extension: raw_html
            Extension: raw_tex
            Extension: native_divs
            Extension: native_spans
    Literate Haskell support
            Extension: literate_haskell
    Other extensions
            Extension: empty_paragraphs
            Extension: styles
            Extension: amuse
            Extension: citations
            Extension: ntb
Pandoc's Markdown
            Extension: escaped_line_breaks
        Setext-style headings
        ATX-style headings
            Extension: blank_before_header
            Extension: space_in_atx_header
        Heading identifiers
            Extension: header_attributes
            Extension: implicit_header_references
    Block quotations
            Extension: blank_before_blockquote
    Verbatim (code) blocks
        Indented code blocks
        Fenced code blocks
            Extension: fenced_code_blocks
            Extension: backtick_code_blocks
            Extension: fenced_code_attributes
    Line blocks
            Extension: line_blocks
        Bullet lists
        Block content in list items
        Ordered lists
            Extension: fancy_lists
            Extension: startnum
            Extension: task_lists
        Definition lists
            Extension: definition_lists
        Numbered example lists
            Extension: example_lists
        Compact and loose lists
        Ending a list
    Horizontal rules
            Extension: table_captions
            Extension: simple_tables
            Extension: multiline_tables
            Extension: grid_tables
                Grid Table Limitations
            Extension: pipe_tables
    Metadata blocks
            Extension: pandoc_title_block
            Extension: yaml_metadata_block
    Backslash escapes
            Extension: all_symbols_escapable
    Inline formatting
            Extension: intraword_underscores
            Extension: strikeout
        Superscripts and subscripts
            Extension: superscript, subscript
            Extension: inline_code_attributes
        Small caps
            Extension: tex_math_dollars
    Raw HTML
            Extension: raw_html
            Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks
            Extension: native_divs
            Extension: native_spans
            Extension: raw_tex
        Generic raw attribute
            Extension: raw_attribute
    LaTeX macros
            Extension: latex_macros
        Automatic links
        Inline links
        Reference links
            Extension: shortcut_reference_links
        Internal links
            Extension: implicit_figures
            Extension: link_attributes
    Divs and Spans
            Extension: fenced_divs
            Extension: bracketed_spans
            Extension: footnotes
            Extension: inline_notes
            Extension: citations
    Non-pandoc extensions
            Extension: old_dashes
            Extension: angle_brackets_escapable
            Extension: lists_without_preceding_blankline
            Extension: four_space_rule
            Extension: spaced_reference_links
            Extension: hard_line_breaks
            Extension: ignore_line_breaks
            Extension: east_asian_line_breaks
            Extension: emoji
            Extension: tex_math_single_backslash
            Extension: tex_math_double_backslash
            Extension: markdown_attribute
            Extension: mmd_title_block
            Extension: abbreviations
            Extension: autolink_bare_uris
            Extension: mmd_link_attributes
            Extension: mmd_header_identifiers
            Extension: compact_definition_lists
    Markdown variants
Producing slide shows with pandoc
    Structuring the slide show
    Incremental lists
    Inserting pauses
    Styling the slides
    Speaker notes
    Frame attributes in beamer
    Background in reveal.js and beamer
Creating EPUBs with pandoc
    EPUB Metadata
    The epub:type attribute
    Linked media
Creating Jupyter notebooks with pandoc
Syntax highlighting
Custom Styles
Custom writers
A note on security


W adorno


Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library.

Pandoc can convert between numerous markup and word processing formats, including, but not limited to, various flavors of Markdown, HTML, LaTeX and Word docx. For the full lists of input and output formats, see the --from and --to options below. Pandoc can also produce PDF output: see [creating a PDF], below.

Pandoc's enhanced version of Markdown includes syntax for [tables], [definition lists], [metadata blocks], [footnotes], [citations], [math], and much more. See below under Pandoc's Markdown.

Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document (an abstract syntax tree or AST), and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer. Users can also run custom pandoc filters to modify the intermediate AST.

Because pandoc's intermediate representation of a document is less expressive than many of the formats it converts between, one should not expect perfect conversions between every format and every other. Pandoc attempts to preserve the structural elements of a document, but not formatting details such as margin size. And some document elements, such as complex tables, may not fit into pandoc's simple document model. While conversions from pandoc's Markdown to all formats aspire to be perfect, conversions from formats more expressive than pandoc's Markdown can be expected to be lossy.

Using pandoc

If no input-files are specified, input is read from stdin. Output goes to stdout by default. For output to a file, use the -o option:

pandoc -o output.html input.txt

By default, pandoc produces a document fragment. To produce a standalone document (e.g. a valid HTML file including <head> and <body>), use the -s or --standalone flag:

pandoc -s -o output.html input.txt

For more information on how standalone documents are produced, see Templates below.

If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them) before parsing. (Use --file-scope to parse files individually.)

Specifying formats

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. The input format can be specified using the -f/--from option, the output format using the -t/--to option. Thus, to convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from HTML to Markdown:

pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported input and output formats are listed below under Options (see -f for input formats and -t for output formats). You can also use pandoc --list-input-formats and pandoc --list-output-formats to print lists of supported formats.

If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the filenames. Thus, for example,

pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX. If no output file is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file's extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML. If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will be assumed to be Markdown.

Character encoding

Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv:

iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8

Note that in some output formats (such as HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, and Texinfo), information about the character encoding is included in the document header, which will only be included if you use the -s/--standalone option.

Creating a PDF

To produce a PDF, specify an output file with a .pdf extension:

pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf

By default, pandoc will use LaTeX to create the PDF, which requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see --pdf-engine below).

Alternatively, pandoc can use ConTeXt, pdfroff, or any of the following HTML/CSS-to-PDF-engines, to create a PDF: wkhtmltopdf, weasyprint or prince. To do this, specify an output file with a .pdf extension, as before, but add the --pdf-engine option or -t context, -t html, or -t ms to the command line (-t html defaults to --pdf-engine=wkhtmltopdf).

PDF output uses [variables for LaTeX] (with a LaTeX engine); [variables for ConTeXt] (with ConTeXt); or [variables for wkhtmltopdf] (an HTML/CSS-to-PDF engine; --css also affects the output).

To debug the PDF creation, it can be useful to look at the intermediate representation: instead of -o test.pdf, use for example -s -o test.tex to output the generated LaTeX. You can then test it with pdflatex test.tex.

When using LaTeX, the following packages need to be available (they are included with all recent versions of TeX Live): amsfonts, amsmath, lm, unicode-math, ifxetex, ifluatex, listings (if the --listings option is used), fancyvrb, longtable, booktabs, graphicx and grffile (if the document contains images), hyperref, xcolor, ulem, geometry (with the geometry variable set), setspace (with linestretch), and babel (with lang). The use of xelatex or lualatex as the PDF engine requires fontspec. xelatex uses polyglossia (with lang), xecjk, and bidi (with the dir variable set). If the mathspec variable is set, xelatex will use mathspec instead of unicode-math. The upquote and microtype packages are used if available, and csquotes will be used for [typography] if \usepackage{csquotes} is present in the template or included via /H/--include-in-header. The natbib, biblatex, bibtex, and biber packages can optionally be used for [citation rendering]. The following packages will be used to improve output quality if present, but pandoc does not require them to be present: upquote (for straight quotes in verbatim environments), microtype (for better spacing adjustments), parskip (for better inter-paragraph spaces), xurl (for better line breaks in URLs), bookmark (for better PDF bookmarks), and footnotehyper or footnote (to allow footnotes in tables).

Reading from the Web

Instead of an input file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:

pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org

It is possible to supply a custom User-Agent string or other header when requesting a document from a URL:

pandoc -f html -t markdown --request-header User-Agent:"Mozilla/5.0" \

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